A recent study published in the journal scientific reportUS researchers examined the effects of sleep restriction on gut microbiota composition and intestinal permeability.
The gut microbiota is increasingly implicated as a mediator of the adverse health effects associated with disturbed or inadequate sleep. changes, which can lead to inflammation, intestinal barrier damage, and intestinal permeability. However, it remains unclear to what extent such effects occur in humans.
In one study, 40 hours of complete sleep deprivation in adults altered the composition of the gut microbiota and increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation, inflammation, and markers of intestinal permeability. It was observed that However, other studies have reported no or minimal changes in gut microbiota composition after sleep restriction.
study: Severe short-term sleep restriction reduces gut bacterial community richness but does not alter intestinal permeability in healthy young menImage credit: Design_Cells / Shutterstock
In the current study, researchers identified the effects of short-term severe sleep deprivation on intestinal permeability and gut microbiota composition in adults.Inclusion criteria were healthy adults aged 17 to 45 years with a BMI less than 30 kg/m2 A regular sleep pattern of 7-9 hours per night without antibiotic use in the past 3 months and with no history of neuropathy, cardiometabolic or gastrointestinal disease.
Consumption of probiotics and dietary supplements was prohibited from 2 weeks prior to and throughout the study. In addition, the researcher implemented a randomized crossover design that included his two conditions for 3 days: adequate sleep (AS) [7-9h sleep/night] and sleep restriction (SR) [2h sleep/night].
(SR/AS) The order of completion was randomized and the phases were separated by a washout period of 21 days if SR preceded AS and a washout period of 7 days if AS preceded SR. rice field. The participant was provided with a diet that ensured energy balance and completed low-intensity exercise during both phases.Faecal samples were collected 48 h after his AS/SR for microbial composition.
DNA was extracted and quantified, and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed. Intestinal permeability was tested using a dual sugar absorption test 72 hours after AS/SR. Subject consumed a beverage containing mannitol and lactulose dissolved in water, and urine produced over the next five hours was collected and evaluated.
Sugar concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fasting blood samples were taken on days 1 and 4 of SR and on the morning of day 4 of AS. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and cortisol levels in serum were quantified. Serum biomarkers, α-diversity and intestinal permeability between AS and SR were assessed using linear mixed models.
Twenty-four men were randomly assigned and 19 participants were included in the study. Self-reported mean waking time on weekdays was consistent with actigraphy data. Data showed that the participant slept her 125 min/night during her SR and he slept 449 min/night during AS. Mean energy intake was slightly higher during her SR than during AS. However, there was no difference in estimated energy balance between conditions.
Participants did not consume any beverages/food other than those provided. Until now. hsCRP concentrations did not differ between days 1 and 4 of SR or between days 4 of SR and AS. Urine output was not affected by sleep. Tone; mannitol or lactulose excretion and lactulose to mannitol ratio did not differ between AS and SR.
Stool consistency was similar between conditions. Fecal samples produced a median of 39,195 reads, which did not differ by condition. Reads were assigned to 3275 unique amplicon sequence variants (ASV) in 12 phyla and 98 genera. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of unweighted and weighted UniFrac distances and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity showed no change in microbial community composition by SR.
α-diversity in SR was 21% lower than in AS. At the same time, there was no difference in Simpson and Shannon diversity indices between conditions, implying that SR decreased community richness, whereas homogeneity was not affected. Nine ASVs, three genera and 0 phyla in differential abundance analysis showed no significant difference in relative abundance.
In particular, one ASV within Ruminococcaceae was significantly different after adjusting for the false discovery rate, suggesting that the decline in abundance during SR may result from the loss of rare taxa. . Differences in serum cortisol levels between conditions correlated with corresponding differences in the ratio of lactulose to mannitol. No additional correlations were found.
In summary, this study demonstrated that restricting sleep to 2 h per night for 3 consecutive days reduced the gut microbiota community without affecting intestinal permeability or the relative abundance of dominant taxa. It has been demonstrated that abundance can be reduced. The decline in community richness may be due to the loss of rare taxa. This is a concern for populations with repeated sleep restriction, as the loss of taxa reduces the functional repertoire of the gut microbiota.